Dr Ostermann is interested in comparative foreign policy analysis with a particular eye on the role of parliaments and parties in security and defense policy. He also holds interests in French security and defense policy, NATO, identity, and qualitative methods. The Parliamentary Deployment Votes Database PDVD and the International Treaty Ratification Database ITRVD take issue with the increasing societal and political contestation of international politics in the realm of military intervention security and defense policies and the ratification of international treaties foreign policy. They provide data for a comparative investigation of parliamentary and party-political voting behavior. Wolfgang Wagner.
Said composition may preferably contain vitamin D3, derivatives or precursors thereof. The composition may be in form of a nutritional or dietary supplement. Said composition is particulary useful for the prophylaxis or treatment of osteoporosis. The most frequently observed are osteoporosis, osteomalacia, rickets, secondary nutritional hypoparathyroidism, t's disease, and fibrous osteodystrophy, all of which represent different forms of calcium deficiency diseases.
Whereas the small intestine is the site where dietary calcium is absorbed, the kidney is critically important for calcium excretion. Under normal blood calcium concentrations, almost all of the calcium that enters glomerular filtrate is reabsorbed from dr brummer northeim tubular system back into blood, which preserves blood calcium levels. If tubular reabsorption of calcium decreases, calcium is lost by excretion into urine. An induced net resorption of bone mineral releases calcium into blood, whereas suppressing this effect allows calcium to be deposited in bone.
Thus, for an optimal bone metabolism balanced levels of calcium resorption and deposition in bone is critical. This also involves normal calcium blood levels. In particular, it is essential to maintain a sufficiently high calcium blood level, thus providing sufficient amounts of calcium for bone formation. The cheapest, common supplement is calcium carbonate from limestone, or oyster shells.
Its most important effect is to facilitate absorption of calcium from the small intestine. In concert with parathyroid hormone, vitamin D also enhances fluxes of calcium out of bone. Parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, sex hormones, and bisphosphonates represent other possibilities for influencing calcium homeostasis.
As they act however on a superior, more regulatory level, they are frequently accompanied by side effects of varying severity, which often surface only after a prolonged intake of the drug. However, the function of Calcium and Vitamin D3 is more regarded as one of basic bone matrix constituent.
In particular, Vitamin D3 promotes the intestinal uptake of orally applied calcium supplement, thus elevating the absorption efficiency. Therapeutically applied Calcium and Vitamin D3 does not induce profoundly altered excretion levels of urinary crosslinked collagen. The increased loss of bone mass by bone turnover occur in association with estrogen deficiency or menopause. In fact, the estrogen deficiency associated with menopause is the most common cause of osteoporosis.
Binding of constituents of extracts from CR to human and rodent estrogen receptors ER has been demonstrated. In earlier times these two observations next to the finding that CR decreases the secretion of the Lutenizing hormone LH lead to the conclusion of a mild estrogen agonistic activity as being responsible for the clinical efficacy. In more recent years, a selective estrogen receptor modulation has been proposed to characterize the pharmacological profile of Cimicifuga racemosa. Based on this hypothesis, also bone protective properties of CR in animal models of human postmenopausal osteoporosis have been demonstrated.
The fact that one of the earliest bone metabolic parameters influenced by CR are renally excreted collagen crosslinks is in good agreement with SERM activities, namely showing bone protective properties. However, an influence of CR on calcium uptake or calcium excretion is not known.
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In particular, it is desirable to have a pharmaceutical or nutritional supplement composition which provides calcium blood levels to prevent bone resorption, i. Hence, the composition is beneficial for bone formation and reduces bone resorption. Preferably CR is in the form of a herbal drug, more preferably in the form of an extract. In particular, the present invention relates to the prevention or treatment of osteoporosis.
The use of a triple combination of a preparation of Cimicifuga racemosa, calcium and vitamin D3 is preferrred. The supplement according to the present invention may be used to supplement food for humans or animals. The supplement can be used in a diet for preventing loss of bone mass, in particular in subjects which have a predisposition for the development of conditions or disorders associated with dr brummer northeim resulting from calcium deficiency, e. For example, the supplement according to the present invention may be used to supplement prophylactic or therapeutic regimens of conditions or disorders associated with or resulting from calcium deficiency.
In particular the composition containing a preparation of Cimicifuga racemosa, calcium and vitamin D ensures that the amount of calcium excreted via the urinary pathway is reduced, thus, allowing calcium retention in the subject. This calcium is available for an intensified mineralization of organ systems, mainly the bone and cartilage system. Moreover, a composition containing Vitamin D, e. Vitamin D3, calcium and CR ificantly reduces the mainly urinary - excretion of Calcium, when compared to administering the same dose of Calcium and Vitamin D3 alone.
Any such increase in Calcium retention is beneficial in all metabolic disorders associated with or resulting from Calcium deficiency, e. It is preferred to use the herbal drug.
It is particularly preferred to use an extract which has been prepared, for example, using an alcoholic extracting dr brummer northeim, particulary ethanol, isopropanol, or methanol. Preferably, the extract is prepared from the rhizome. In this connection, the effective daily dosage according to the present application is preferably a CR drug content of from 5 mg to mg.
The effective daily dosage of calcium or calcium derivatives is preferably of from mg to mg based on calcium. Vitamin D includes, but is not limited to vitamin D2, vitamin D3, and the provitamins thereof. The effective daily dosage of vitamin D3, its derivatives or precursors is preferably of from 50 to IU vitamin D3. Non-limiting exemplary vitamins and biologically acceptable minerals and their derivatives thereof for inclusion in the present compositions include vitamin A, B vitamins, vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin K, folic acid, iron, magnesium, potassium, copper, chromium, zinc, molybdenum, iodine, boron, selenium, manganese, derivatives thereof or combinations thereof.
These vitamins and minerals may be from any source or combination of sources, without limitation. Non-limiting exemplary B vitamins include thiamine, niacinamide, pyridoxine, riboflavin, cyanocobalamin, biotin, pantothenic aicd or combinations thereof. Optional additives of the present composition include, without limitation, starches, sugars, fats, antioxidants, amino acids, proteins, derivatives thereof or combinations thereof.
The ability to obtain immediate release, extended release, pulse release, variable release, controlled release, timed release, sustained release, delayed release, long acting characteristics and combinations thereof is performed using well known procedures and techniques available to the ordinary artisan. Each of these specific techniques or procedures for obtaining the release characteristics does not constitute an inventive aspect of this inventive subject matter all of which procedures are well known to those of ordinary skill in the art.
As used herein, a "controlled release form" means any form having at least one component formulated for controlled release. As used herein, "immediate release form" means any form having all its components formulated for immediate release.
Examples of such dosage form include, without limitation, chewable tablets, quick dissolve tablets, effervescent tablets, reconstitutable powders, elixirs, liquids solutions, suspensions, emulsions, tablets, multi-layer tablets, bi-layer dr brummer northeim, capsules, soft gelatin capsules, hard gelatin capsules, caplets, lozenges, chewable lozenges, be, powders, granules, particles, microparticles, dispersible granules, cachets, implants, depot implants, ingestibles, injectables, infusions, health bars, confections, animal feeds, cereals, cereal coatings, foods, nutritive foods, functional foods and combination thereof.
The preparation of the above dosage forms are well known to persons of ordinary skill in the art. The mass in then either extended or molded to form "candy bar" shapes that are then dried or allowed to solidify to form the final product. Said tablets may contain excipients or additives like binders, bulking substances, etc which are known to the artisan. This mixture is then encapsulated with a gelatin based film using technology and machinery known to those in the soft gel industry. The industrial units so formed are then dried to constant weight.
Chewable tablets, for example, may be prepared by mixing the formulations with excipients deed to form a relatively soft, flavored, tablet dosage form that is intended to be chewed rather then swallowed.
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Conventional tablet machinery and procedures, that is both direct compression and granulation, i. Those individuals involved in pharmaceutical solid dosage from production are well versed in the processes and the machinery used as the chewable dosage form is a very common dosage form in the pharmaceutical industry. Film coated tablets, for example, may be prepared by coating tablets using techniques such as rotating pan coating methods or air suspension methods to deposit a contiguous film layer on a tablet.
Compressed tablets may also be prepared by mixing the formulation with excipients. Without being limited thereto, such materials include diluents, binders and adhesives, lubricants, plasticizers, disintegrants, colorants, bulking substances, flavorings, sweeteners and miscellaneous materials such as buffers and orbents in order to prepare a particular medicated composition.
Exemplary non-limiting solvents are water, ethanol, isopropanol, methylene chloride or mixtures and combinations thereof.
Exemplary non-limiting bulking substances - fillers - include sugar, lactose, gelatin, starch, and silicon dioxide. Preferred plasticizers may be selected from the group consisting of diethyl phthalate, diethyl sebacate, triethyl citrate, cronotic acid, propylene glycol, butyl phthalate, dibutyl sebacate, caster oil and mixtures thereof, without limitation.
As is evident, the plasticizers may be hydrophobic as well as hydrophilic in nature. Water-insoluble hydrophobic substances, such as diethyl phthalate, diethyl sebacate and caster oil are used to delay the release of water-soluble vitamins, such as vitamin B 6 and vitamin C.
In contrast, hydrophilic plasticizers are used when water-insoluble vitamins are employed which aid in dissolving the encapsulated film, making channels in the surface, which aid in nutritional composition release. Fractional, double or other multiple doses may be taken simultaneously or at different times during the 24 hour period. That means, the composition according to the present invention may be administered simultaneously, separately or sequentially. The dr brummer northeim are individually adjusted according to body weight and the condition of the subject as well as the prescribed regimen.
In dr brummer northeim, the present invention relates to the use for the treatment of osteoporosis, osteomalacia, rickets, secondary nutritional hypoparathyroidism, t's disease, and fibrous osteodystrophy. The treatment comprises the administration of a preparation of Cimicifuga racemosa, calcium or calcium derivatives, and vitamin D, preferably vitamin D3. The above components may be administered simultaneously, separately or sequentially.
In particular, it relates to the prophylactic treatment of subjects which have a predisposition for the development of conditions or disorders associated with or resulting from calcium deficiency, e. For example, the nutritional supplement is suitable for oral intake. The amount of the nutritional or dietary supplement to be taken daily vary within broad limits, depending, for example, on the subjects's age and body weight.
They were fed with a soy free diet, providing a daily intake of mg Calcium and 28 IU Vitamin D3 per kg body weight i. Ovariectomy OVX was performed at approx. The liquid extract used in this experiment originated from the regular production process and was part of a batch destined for tablet production. It was manufactured by adding 1. Calcium was measured in a commercialy available test kit using the arsenazo III method. Arsenazo III, when complexed with calcium turns purple, the intensity of colouring being proportional to the amount of calcium.